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Here are some of the book and article references noted on this website and/or in our slide decks, plus others worth looking into (all links open in a new tab):

References: General

Britton et al, 2014: A randomized controlled pilot trial of classroom-based mindfulness meditation compared to an active control condition in sixth-grade children. Journal of School Psychology, June 2014, 52(3):263-78.

Bruner, J. S. (1960/1977). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Christensen, C. M. (1997). The Innovator’s Dilemma:  When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Crutchfield, L. R., & Grant, H. M. (2008). Forces For Good:  The Six Practices of High-Impact Nonprofits. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Mezirow, J., & Associates. (2000). Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2009). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

References: Other

Ahamed, Y., Macdonald, H., Reed, K., Naylor, P.-J., Liu-Ambrose, T., & Mckay, H. (2007). School-based physical activity does not compromise children’s academic performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(2), 371-376.

American Diabetes Association (2018), The Burden of Diabetes in Arizona.

American School Counselor Organization (2019).   School Counselors Matter.

Arizona Department of Education (2010). Recess and Physical Education Survey Results, Fall 2010.

Arizona House of Representatives, Committee on Education, Hearing, February 26, 2018  (approx. 1.5 hours; start at 42:00).   Downloaded June 12, 2023.

Arizona State Board of Education (2017).   Summary of Action, April 24, 2017
(AzSBE initiating process of adding physical, health & arts education to state’s A-F school accountability system;  see Section 4.B., p.5;  from

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008). Obesity in Children and Teens. Washington DC.

Bonnie, R. & Stratton, K. et al (2007). Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

Brown, J.B., Nichols, G.A., Glauber, H.S., & Bakst, A.W. (1999)  Type 2 Diabetes: Incremental Medical Care Costs During the First 8 Years After Diagnosis, Diabetes Care, 22 (7), 1116-1124.

Blair S.N., Kohl H.W. 3rd, Paffenbarger R.S. Jr, Clark D.G., Cooper K.H., Gibbons L.W., (1989). Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women, JAMA, 262(17), 2395-401.

Brener N.D., Pejavara A., McManus T. (2011). Applying the School Health Index to a nationally representative sample of schools: update for 2006. Journal of School Health, 81, 81-90.

Buescher, P.A., Whitmire, J.T., Plescia, M. (2008). Relationship Between Body Mass Index & Medical Care Expenditures for North Carolina Adolescents Enrolled in Medicaid in 2004. Preventing Chronic Disease, 5(1).

Bureau of Labor Statistics (2014). BLS consumer expenditure survey, 2013. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.

CDC (2023). About Chronic Diseases.

CDC (2023). Child Obesity Facts.

CDC (2014). School Health Index: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Elementary school version. Middle school/high school version. Atlanta, Georgia.

CDC (2014). Health and Academic Achievement.

Chaddock, L., Erickson, K. I., Prakash, R. S., Kim, J. S., Voss, M. W., VanPatter, M., et al. (2010). A neuroimaging investigation of the association between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume, and memory performance in preadolescent children. Brain Research, 1358, 172-183.

Chaddock, L., Erickson, K. I., Prakash, R. S., VanPatter, M., Voss, M. W., Pontifex, M. B., et al. (2010). Basal ganglia volume is associated with aerobic fitness in preadolescent children. Developmental Neuroscience, 32, 249-256.

CMS (2022). National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA): NHE Table 21 Expenditures, Enrollment and Per Enrollee Estimates of Health Insurance.

Council of Economic Advisers (2009). The economic effects of health care reform on small business and their employees. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President.

DeHeer, H. (2014). Fit Kids at School: Executive Report Part 1 & Part 2.

Desy, E., Peterson, S., Brockman, V. (2011). Gender differences in science-related attitudes and interests among middle school and high school students. Science Educator, 20(2), 23-30.

Dills, A.K., Morgan, H.N., Rotthoff, K.W. (2011). Recess, physical education, and elementary school student outcomes. Economics of Education Review, 30, 889-900.

Donnelly, J. E., Greene, J. L., Gibson, C. A., Smith, B. K., Washburn, R. A., Sullivan, D. K., . . . Williams, S. L. (2009). Physical activity across the curriculum (PAAC): A randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish overweight and obesity in elementary school children. Preventive Medicine, 49, 336-341.

Fedewa, A.L., & Ahn S. (2011). The effects of physical activity and physical fitness on children’s achievement and cognitive outcomes: A meta-analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 82, 521-535.

Frisvold, D.E. (2015). Nutrition and cognitive achievement: An evaluation of the School Breakfast Program, Journal of Public Economics, 124, 91-104.

Fullerton, C.A., Epstein, A.M., Frank, R.G., Normand, S.T., Fu, C.X., McGuire, T.G. (2012). Medication Use and Spending Trends Among Children With ADHD in Florida’s Medicaid Program, 1996-2005, Psychiatric Services, 63(2), pp.115-121.

Geier, A., Foster, G., Womble, L., & al., E. (2007). The relationship between relative weight and school attendance among elementary schoolchildren. Obesity, 15(8), 2157-2161.

Heckman, J. J., Moon, S. H., Pinto, R., Savelyev, P. A., & Yavitz, A. (2010). The rate of return to the HighScope Perry Preschool Program. Journal of Public Economics, 94, 114-128.

Herman, K. M., Craig, C. L., Gauvin, L., Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2009). Tracking of obesity and physical activity from childhood to adulthood: The Physical Activity Longitudinal StudyInternational Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 4(4), 281-288.

Hillman, C. H. (2010). Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in Children. Kansas: University of Illinois.

Hillman, C.H., Pontifex, M.B., et al (2009). The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children. Neuroscience, 159(3), 1044–1054.
[Note: immediate one-grade-level improvement in test score performance from recent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.]

Hollar, D., Messiah, S. E., Lopez-Mitnik, G., Hollar, T. L., Almon, M., & Agatston, A., S. . (2010). Effect of a Two-Year Obesity Prevention Intervention on Percentile Changes in Body Mass Index and Academic Performance in Low-Income Elementary School Children. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 646-653.

Isaacs, S., & Swartz, A. (2010). Editor’s choice – On the front lines of childhood obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 100(11), 2018.

Johnson, J. K. (2010). Program Evaluation of Operation Tone-Up. Phoenix: Desert Sage Associates.

Kaiser Family Foundation (2012), The Role of Medicaid for Adults with Chronic Illnesses, Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, November 2012.

Katz, Cushman, Reynolds, et al (2010). Putting physical activity where it fits in the school day: preliminary results of the ABC (Activity Bursts in the Classroom) for fitness program. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 7(4), A82 (1-10).

Kim, K. (2011). The Creativity Crisis: The Decrease in Creative Thinking Scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 23:4, 285-295.

Lees, C. & Hopkins, J. (2013). Effect of aerobic exercise on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function in children: a systematic review of randomized controlled
trials. Preventing Chronic Disease, 10, October 24, 2013.

Lever, J. and Thorpe, K. (2011, May 24). Prevention: the answer to curbing chronically high health care costs (guest opinion). Kaiser Health News. Retrieved from

Mackey, A.P., Finn, A.S., et al (2015). Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income-Achievement Gap, Psychological Science, 26 (6), 925-933.

Mandsager, K., Harb, S., Cremer, P., Phelan, D., Nissen, S., Jaber, W. (2018)  Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Long-term Mortality Among Adults Undergoing Exercise Treadmill Testing, JAMA Network Open, 1(6):e183605.

May, A.L., Kuklina, E.V., Yoon, P.W. (2012). Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among US Adolescents, 1999-2008, Pediatrics, 129(6): 1035-1041. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 2001-2011. Available at:

NASBO, 2012.  State Expediture Report.  Available at:

Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2014). Prevalence of Childhood and Adult Obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(8), 806-814.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2012). U.S. health care system from a international perspective. OECD Health Data 2012. Paris, France: OECD.

Plowman, S.A. & Meredith, M.D. (Eds.). (2013). Fitnessgram/Activitygram Reference Guide (4th Edition). Dallas, TX: The Cooper Institute.

Reeves, J. (2016). US Department of Education Grant Performance Report, PR/Award # Q215F120160, Sunnyside Unified School District, Tucson, AZ.
[Note: this is the official report to the US Department of Education on University of Arizona’s Partners for Healthy Promises federal PEP-Grant-funded project in the Sunnyside Unified School District, 2012-2015.]

Ricanati, E.H.W., Golubic, M., Yang, D., Saager, L., Mascha, E.J., Roizen, M.F. (2011). Mitigating preventable chronic disease: progress report of the Cleveland Clinic’s Lifestyle 180 program. Nutrition & Metabolism, 8(83). doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-83.

Rumberger, R.W. (2011). Dropping out: why students drop out of high school and what can be done about it. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press.

Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Kolody, B., Lewis, M., Marshall, S., & Rosengard, P. (1999). Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: Project SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 127-134.

Schonert-Reichl, K. & Oberle, E. et al (2015). Enhancing Cognitive and Social–Emotional Development Through a Simple-to-Administer Mindfulness-Based School Program for Elementary School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Developmental Psychology, January 2015, 51(1): 52-66.

Schuch, F.B., Vancampfort, D., Richards, J., et al. (2016). Exercise as a treatment for depression: A meta-analysis adjusting for publication bias. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 77, 52-51.

Sibold, J., Edwards, E. et al (2015). Physical activity, sadness, and suicidality in bullied US adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2015 Oct; 54(10):808-15.

Singh, A., Uijtdewilligen, L., Twisk, J.W., van Mechelen, W., Chinapaw, M.J. (2012). Physical activity and performance at school: A systematic review of the literature including a methodological quality assessment. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 166, 49-55.

Skinner, A.C., Perrin, E.M., & Skelton, J.A. (2016). Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity in US Children, 1999-2014Pediatric Obesity, 24, 1116-1123.

Sontam, D.M., Vickers, M.H., Firth, E.C., O’Sullivan, J.M. (2017). A Memory of Early Life Physical Activity Is Retained in Bone Marrow of Male Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet, Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 476.

Sugerman, S., Adkins, S., Hooker, S., Foerster, S., Carman, J., & Chenoweth, D. (2005). The Economic Costs of Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Overweight in California Adults: Health Care, Workers’ Compensation, and Lost Productivity: California Department of Health Services, Public Health Institute.

Tabak, A.G., Herder, C., Rathmann, W., Brunner, E.J., Kivimaki, M. (2012). Prediabetes: A high-risk state for developing diabetes. Lancet, 379(9833), 2279-2290.

Telama, R., Yang, X., Leskinen, E., Kankaanpaa, A. et al (2014). Tracking of Physical Activity from Early Childhood through Youth into Adulthood, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, 0195-9131/14/4605-0955/0.

Trudeau, F., & Shephard, R. J. (2010). Relationships of physical activity to brain health and the academic performance of schoolchildren. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 4(138).

Trost, S., & van der Mars, H. (2009). Why we should not cut PE. Educational leadership, 67(4), 60-65.

Trudeau, F., & Shephard, R. J. (2008). Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5(10).

Turner, S. (2013). Transformative Education for Long-term Behavior Change: Preventing Childhood Obesity and Improving Health Through In-School Curriculum-based Nutrition and Exercise Programs. (PhD Human and Organizational Systems), Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA.

Whitaker, R., Wright, J., Pepe, M., Seidel, K., & Dietz, W. (1997). Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, ;337(13), 869-873.

Yamamoto, D.H. (2013). Health care costs—from birth to death. Part of the Health Care Cost Institute’s Independent Report Series – Report 2013-1. Society of Actuaries.

Zhuo et al, (2014). The lifetime cost of diabetes and its implications for diabetes prevention. Diabetes Care, 37: 2557-2564.

Please see our latest slide deck for other references & additional details.